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Guides & Tutorials

Developing a Research Question| Journals vs. Magazines | Primary vs. Secondary Sources

Selecting Sources | Subject Guides | Searching Databases

Evaluating Websites | MLA Works Cited | APA References | Online Labs

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Developing a Research Question

The Research Paper is essentially a persuasive essay in which you state a proposition that you can support with authoritative, reliable sources. Your research paper is not a regurgitation of the information you found, summarizing ideas that are not your own. Research is about making informed decisions based on the credible sources you find.

-- How do you come up with a proposition or opinion that you can support with other sources? --

Start with a general subject. 
What subjects are you interested in exploring?

Examples: social media, social justice, advertising, bullying, identity theft

Need ideas? 
Explore news and opinion articles

Thinking student

Research Topic Ideas

Databases

Websites

Get inspiration from personal stories (including your own)

Get background information on the subject.

Reading reference sources, such as subject-specific encyclopedias and handbooks will give you an overview of the subject that is fact-based.

Reference sources will help you:
  • Get a general overview of the subject
  • Guide your research by bringing up important issues
  • Narrow your focus
  • Discover keywords to help you search for relevant information

Ask questions about the subject.

  • What are the attitudes, beliefs, and values that need to be questioned, or challenged?
  • What are the problems and controversies? Can you look at these issues from a different angle or perspective to avoid rehashing the same old arguments?
  • What are the related causes, effects, or correlations? Do they pose problems or concerns that need to be addressed?
  • From which academic perspectives and approaches can you look at the issues? (e.g., psychological or health perspectives on obesity, public policy or ethical issues concerning the death penalty)
  • Who is affected or involved? Think of narrowing focus by age group, gender, etc.
  • Can you narrow your focus by place (e.g., public school, workplace, playground) or geographic location (e.g., local, state, national)?
  • Who cares? Who is your potential audience? Do you intend to get them to do something differently? See something differently?
For additional help asking questions, see: Prewriting (Invention) General Questions from the OWL at Purdue University

The Research Question

Now that you've thought about the various questions related to the subject, narrow your list down to a single question that will guide your research.

Ask a question that requires you to make a decision, based on the information that you will gather during the research process. Look for questions that are argumentative rather than those with definitive answers.

Often, your answer to the research question will become the thesis statement of your paper.

    • If your research question is :"Should recycling be mandatory?"
    • Your answer/thesis statement might be: "Recycling should be mandatory."

As you develop your research question - and this will likely take some time, so let thoughts percolate - you may want to do a little preliminary research to find answers to those definitive questions.

short - narrow Have obesity rates really increased over the years?


This question has an definitive answer, so it doesn't make an intriguing research question.

Finding the statistics to answer this question, however, may help you to then devise a
research question based on the answer.

If you find that rates have in fact increased, you might ask if a psychological approach to
combating obesity might be more effective than solely pushi
ng exercise and diet.

Sub-Questions

Once you have developed your research question, it is often helpful to break down that question into specific, sub-questions that will help you address the main research question. This will help you to then determine with types of information you will need to find and where to go to find what you need.

If your research question is: Should recycling be mandatory?
A couple of sub-questions might be:

Sub-Questions  
What Types of Information Will Answer This?
Where Will I Find These Source Types?
What is the impact of recycling at residences and small businesses? What about larger institutions and companies?
Research studies  
Government documents online (via search engine) and scholarly journal articles online (via library databases)
What has more impact: paper, glass, aluminum, plastic?
Research and/or statistical data
Government documents online (via search engine) and scholarly journal articles online (via library databases)

Image Credits

(cc) "Any Guesses?" by Raymond Larose  on Flickr.com
(cc) "Intersection" by Voxphoto on Flickr.com

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Selecting Sources

What types of sources do I need?
Understanding the information cycle will help you determine the source types you will need.

Where will I find these source types?

Reference Sources

For definitions and background information on a topic:

Books

For broad and in-depth examinations of a topic:

 

Academic Journals

Scholarly or peer-reviewed journals for original research articles:

Trade, Industry
& Professional Publications

For industry news, trends, and forecasts:

Popular Magazines
& Newspapers

For general interest and news articles:

Databases

Websites

Statistical Data

Online Archives for Primary Sources

Specialized Search Engines

Web Directories and Guides

Web Resources

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Searching Databases

Kimbel Library on Vimeo

 

  1. Start by identifying 2-4 search terms that will pull relevant articles for your topics.
    • Example:
      • Researching the effects of violent video games on teens?
    • What are the important concepts in this topic?
      • violence, video games, teenagers
Keywords and Boolean operators
   
  1. Connect each unique concept with the command AND. This tells the database that articles must have each term in the article or publication title, author, subject terms, or abstract.
    • Example:
      • violence AND video games AND teenagers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EBSCOhost article record

 

Need to narrow your results?    

 Need to broaden your results?

  • Limit the area your terms are searched to just the titles, authors, subjects, or abstracts. Example: search VIDEO GAMES in TITLE
  • Add another unique concept connected with the AND command. Can you narrow your focus to a particular age group, gender, or academic discipline? Example: search VIDEO GAMES and TEENAGERS and PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS
  • Limit your results to a particular date range, geographic location, or source type. Look around the sides of the screen for database limiters.
  • Open the area your terms are searched to the entire document. Example: search POSTAL 2  in ALL TEXT.
  • Use similar or related terms and examples in place of the concepts you first identified. An relevant article may use the term teenagers or adolescents instead of teens. Example: search VIDEO GAMES and ADOLESCENT
  • If you are not able to access a full-text article from EBSCOhost or JSTOR, consider requesting an interlibrary loan by submitting a request form to the reference desk.  FC Library will attempt to borrow the item for you from another library.
   

Database Tutorials  

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Journals vs. Magazines

Taxonomy of Periodicals [pdf]


Look at the... 
   
Popular Magazines & Newspapers
Professional, Trade, Industry or Special-Interest Periodicals 
Scholarly, Academic, Peer-Reviewed, or Refereed Journals 
Citation for:
  • frequency of publication
  • authors of articles
  • article titles
  • Issued frequently: weekly, biweekly, or monthly
  • Often one author. Staff-written or written by freelance authors or guest contributors.
  • Popular or catchy article titles.
  • Issued frequently: weekly, biweekly, or monthly.
  • Often one author. Staff-written by freelance authors, guest contributors, or professionals in the field.
  • Straightforward article titles, sometimes popular and catchy.
  •  Issued less frequently: monthly, quarterly, or semiannually.
  • Frequently multiple coauthors. Scholars and researchers in the filed, discipline, or specialty. Authors with university affiliations or professional titles.
  • Titles related to research question or results; often long, not catchy.
Whole Periodical for:
  • audience
  • purpose
  • paper, illustrations, layout
  • advertising
  • Educated but non-expert readers; uses simple language in order to meet minimum education levels.
  • Designed to entertain or persuade readers with a variety of general interest topics in broad subject fields; also geared to sell products and services through advertising.
  • Eye-catching covers, glossy paper, photos, illustrations, cartoons, sidebars.
  • Many ads for general-consumer products and services.
  • Practitioners of a particular profession, members of a trade, or workers in an industry; language appropriate for an educated readership; assumes a certain level of specialized knowledge.
  • Examines problems or concerns in a particular profession or industry; provides specialized information to a wide interested audience.
  • Eye-catching covers, glossy paper, photos, illustrations, cartoons, sidebars.
  • Many ads for products and services related to a particular profession, trade, or industry.
  • Scholars and researchers in the field, discipline, or specialty; language contains terminology and jargon of the discipline; reader is assumed to have a scholarly background.
  • To inform, report, or make available original research or experimentation in a specific field or discipline to the rest of the scholarly world; where new knowledge is reported.
  • Plain covers, usually plain matte paper; mostly text inside, with tables, figures, charts, graphs; little or no color or illustrations.
  • Few to no ads; if any, tend to be for other journals or specific services or products.
Articles for:
  • abstracts
  • references
  • No abstracts.
  • Sources are not cited; no references or bibliography at end of articles.
  • No abstracts.
  • Sources are not cited; no references or bibliography at end of articles.
  • Articles usually have an abstract at the beginning that summarizes the findings of the articles.
  • Scholarly references in the form of bibliographies, reference lists, and footnotes appear with each article.
 
Examples:


Newsweek, Time, Reader's Digest 

finding 
popular magazine articles 
Beverage World, Restaurant News, Advertising Age

finding
trade publication articles
Science, The Journal of American History, American Literature , Social Psychology Quarterly

finding 
academic journal articles

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Primary vs. Secondary Sources [pdf]

Examples

 Primary Sources

 Secondary Sources

 
  • Firsthand accounts of a time period or event, original documents, and creative works. 
  • Works created at the time of an event.
  • Publications that analyze, interpret, review, or evaluate primary sources.
  • Works created well after an event.
Art
 Painting, drawing, or sculpture  Article critiquing artwork
Film
Movie
Movie review
History
Diary, letter, speech, interview, photo, or ad.
History book or biography of historical figure
Literature
A novel, short story, or poem
Literary criticism
Social or Natural Science
An original research study
Review article of original research study
Theater
Performance taping
Review of performance
Other Examples:
Magazine or newspaper article from the time 
Encyclopedia, dictionary, or atlas
Autobiography or memoir
Biography
Opinion poll or survey
Interpretation of survey results

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Evaluating Websites

With hundreds of millions of documents on the Internet, there's plenty of information to choose from.  But when doing research on the web, be sure and look at your results more carefully! Remember that the information on the web is not subject to the same standards as a published book or magazine article.  Almost anyone can put almost anything on the web. Web documents are not necessarily reviewed, edited, or even proof read. Some web pages are written by experts, but others are written by those with little or no knowledge on the subject.

Does the Web page you found ROCC?

Use the criteria Reliability Objective Creator Currency to evaluate the sources you find on the Web.

Reliability


The site is well written without spelling or grammatical errors. The document's content is comprehensive and the facts stated agree with the other information you have found.  There is a bibliography of reputable sources. 

Would you get more comprehensive information using this source in a paper or consulting the research studies referenced in this science brief?

  • Evaluate the content and compare it with other sources
  • How comprehensive is it? If the source is a summary, review, news or other brief on a research study, book, or other source, consult and use that source in your paper. 
  • Does the author reference outside sources with citations or links or give unsubstantiated opinion?
  • Look for emotional or inflammatory language, i.e. "Everyone must stop this now!!!!"
  • Does the author acknowledge other viewpoints?
  • Are different viewpoints fairly presented?

Objective


The document's purpose is clearly stated.  Arguments and assumptions are logical and well-supported. The presentation of the material is objective and any bias plainly stated. Other viewpoints are acknowledged. The language is not emotionally charged.

Does this organization have a reason to try to convince readers of its point of view? 

  • Read through the document. Why was this document written? 
  • Is the purpose clearly stated or presented?
  • Does the author or organization have a particular reason to try to convince the reader of its point of view?

Creator


An authoritative source lists the author's name along with his or her credentials and background. An organization affiliated with the site is reputable.  Contact information, such as address, phone number or email address, is given for the author or organization. The site is well designed and easy to navigate.

Now Google the  sponsoring organization. What do others have to say about the IHR?

  • Look  for the name of the author or sponsoring organization. It may be necessary to scroll through the entire document looking  for a clue.  The author's  name or sponsoring organization are very often at the end of the document. There may be a link to this information, such as one that says "About Us."
  • If little or no information is given, check any links that say  "Home," or "Back" or "Main page" to see if you can follow a trail to a responsible party.
  • Look at the web site's URL or Internet address, to try and determine the author's affiliation.  Delete the URL down to the basic domain (.edu, .org, .gov, .com, etc.) to bring you to the main site. What is the educational institution, organization, government department or agency, or company?  URL's with a ~ in them often indicate a personal site. Education sites (.edu) often allow students to post their papers or projects to the web, so look at the entire URL carefully.
  • Other information about the author or organization might be found by searching magazine or newspaper databases, such as EBSCOhost for more information about, or articles by, your author.  Or try a web search engine for other pages by that author. A print source, such as Who's Who in America, can also be helpful.  Ask your librarian for assistance if necessary.

Currency


There should be a date and it should indicate what the date actually means, i.e.  is it the date the information was originally written, first posted to the web, or last revised. The links should be current.

    • Is this source current enough for the topic? >> ReCAPP

    • Look for the date the document was first written or published, the date the information was placed on the Web, or the date the document or Web page was last revised. Is the publication date suitable for your needs? 
    • Are the links current, or are there many dead links?

See Also: The Internet Detective - online tutorial

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MLA Works Cited

MLA - Modern Lanugage Association

Used by many classes in the humanities, the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association, 2009, is available in the library for checkout: Call# LB2369 .G53 2009

Citing Books
Citing Periodicals (Journals, Magazines, Newspapers)
Citing Web Pages
Citing Government Documents
Citation Makers
Additional Resources 


Books

Information You Need to Gather:

1.  author's or editor's Last Name, First Name. (followed by a period)
2.  "Title of the Chapter, Essay, or Article." (if applicable, between quotation marks & followed by a period). 
3.  Title of the Book. (in italics & followed by a period)
4.  Editor's First then Last Name. (place here when there's also an author, abbreviated Ed.)
5.  Edition. (if applicable, abbreviated 2nd ed.)
6.  City of Publication: (followed by a colon)
7.  Publishing company, (followed by a comma)
8.  Year of publication. (followed by a period)
9.  Page numbers. (required if citing a chapter in a book, followed by a period)
10.  For ebooks, include the Electronic Database Name or Source of eBook.(in italics and followed by a period)
11.  Medium. (Print. or Web. followed by a period)
11.  For ebooks, include Day Month* Year. (when you accessed the ebook online)

Abbreviations: 

*Abbreviate all months (e.g., Jan., Mar.) except May, June, and July
rpt. = reprint
n.p. = no place of publication given or no publisher given
n.d. = no date of publication given
n. pag. = no pagination given

Examples for Citing Books

Abrahamson, Dean E., ed. The Challenge of Global Warming. Washington: Island Press, 1989. Print.

Eisenberg, Michael B., Carrie A. Lowe, and Kathleen L. Spitzer. Information Literacy: Essential Skills for the    

Information Age. 2nd ed. Westport: Libraries Unlimited, 2004. Print.

Fuller, John G. Fever! The Hunt for a New Killer Virus. New York: Reader's Digest, 1974. Print.

James, William. The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature. New York: Longmans, 1911.

Google Books. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.

Quandt, William B. Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict Since 1967. 3rd ed. 

Washington: Brookings Inst., 2005. eBook Collection. Web. 17 Aug. 2009.

Chapters, Essays, Articles or Other Works in Anthologies

Chideya, Farai. "Homophobia: Hip-Hop's Black Eye." Step into a World: A Global Anthology of the New Black 

Literature. Ed. Kevin Powell. New York: Wiley, 2000. 95-100. Print. 

Fromm, Eric. "Human Nature Is Shaped by Society." Human Nature: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven,

1999. 18-23. Print. Rpt. of Escape from Freedom. Erich Fromm. N.p.: Holt, 1969. N. pag.

Articles in a Dictionary, Encyclopedia or Other  Reference Works

"Lennon, John." World Book Encyclopedia. 2006 ed. Print.

"Organic." Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. 11th ed. 2006. Print.

Santora, Patricia B. and Jack E. Henningfield. "Nicotine." Tobacco in History and Culture: An Encyclopedia. Ed. 

Jordan Goodman. Vol. 2. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005. 387-392. Gale Virtual Reference

Library. Web. 17  Aug. 2009.

Singer, Bruce. "Animal Research." Encyclopedia of Bioethics. 3rd ed. 2004. Print.


Periodicals (journals, magazines, and newspapers)

Information You Need to Gather:

  1.  author's or editor's Last Name, First Name. (followed by a period)
  2.  "Title of  Article." (between quotation marks & followed by a period)
  3.  Name of Journal, Magazine, or Newspaper (in italics; follow with period if accessed from a website)
  4. If accessed from a website, include website Publisher or Sponsor Name. (followed by a period)
  5.  For journalsvolume #. issue # (year): page range. (if available, if not use n. page.
  6. For magazines - publication day Month* year: page range. (if available, if not use n. pag.)
  7. For newspapersday Month year,  Edition (if available): Section page(s). (if not available for database or print, use n. pag.; not necessary if accessed via Web).
  8. If accessed from a database, include the Database Name (in italics & followed by a period)
  9.  Medium. (Print or Web, followed by a period). 
  10.  For online articles, include access day Month* year. (followed by a period)

* Abbreviate all months (e.g., Jan., Mar., Apr.) except May, June and July.

Journal Articles

Keown, Damien. "Are There 'Human Rights' in Buddhism?" Journal of Buddhist Ethics 2 (1995): 3-27.

Web. 17 Aug. 2012.

Marsh, Kelly A. "Contextualizing Bridget Jones." College Literature 31.1 (2004): 52-72. Academic

Search Premier. Web. 17 Aug. 2009.

Mathews, Samuel, and Thomas Jones. "Electronic Communication in Large Organizations." 

Technical Communication  39.2 (1993): 60-65. Print.

Miller, Alison L., Brenda L. Volling, and Nancy L. McEwain. "Sibling Jealousy in a Triadic Context with

Mothers and Fathers." Social Development 9.4 (2000): 433-457. Psychology and Behavioral

Sciences Collection. Web. 17 Aug. 2009.

Magazine Articles

Gekas, Alexandra. "The Race to Be First." Newsweek. Newsweek. 26 Jan. 2007. Web. 17 Aug. 2009.

"Global Warming." Time 3 Apr. 2006: 28-33. Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 Aug. 2009.

Hawkins, Dana. "Cheap Video Cameras Are Monitoring Our Every Move." U.S. News & World Report 

17 Jan. 2000:  52+ MasterFILE Premier. Web. 17 Aug. 2009.

Mehta, Pratap Bhanu. "Exploding Myths." New Republic 6 June 1998: 17-19. Print.

Newspaper Articles

Heath, Brad. "Traffic Set to Slow As Stimulus Gears Up." USA Today 4 May 2009: n. pag. Academic

Search Premier. Web. 17 Aug. 2009.

Leonhardt, David. "Rents Head Up As Home Prices Put Off Buyers." New York Times. New York

Times. 25 Aug. 2005. Web. 17 Aug. 2009.

"Study Ties Self-Delusion to Successful Marriages." New York Times 2 Jan. 1998, late ed.: A11+.

Print.


 Web Pages

Information You Need to Gather:

  1. author's Last Name, First Name. (followed by a period)
  2. "Title of  the Web Page or Article." (if applicable, between quotation marks & followed by a period). 
  3. Name of Website. (in italics & followed by a period)
  4. Publisher or Sponsor of the site (followed by a comma)
  5. Date of publication. (if not available use n.d., followed by a period) 
  6. Medium. (Print. or Web., followed by a period)
  7. access day Month* year. (followed by a period)
  8. The 2009 update does not require the URL for websites; however, if your instructor requires this, add the address at the end of the citation in  brackets: <http://www.library.fullcoll.edu>.

Websites

Coseru, Christian. "Mind in Indian Buddhist Philosophy." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 

Stanford U, 12 Oct. 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012.

Eun, Lee Yoo. "Anonymous Hacks North Korean Sites, Reveals South Korean Users." Weblog entry. 

Global Voices.  Global Voices. 5 Apr. 2013. Web. 16 Apr. 2013.

JeffcoLibrary. "Information Literacy." Online video clip. YouTube. 8 Mar. 2012. Web. 21 Nov. 2012. 

"Obama Statement on Boston Terror Attack." Online video clip. CNN. Cable News Network. 9 Apr.

2013. YouTube. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.

Obesity Society. "Obesity Society Supports Efforts to Reduce Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened

Beverages." Obesity Society. The Obesity Society, 31 May 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012.

"The Suicide Plan." Narr. Will Lyman. Frontline. PBS. WGBH, 13 Nov. 2012. PBS.org. Web. 15 Nov.

2012. 

Swinson, Jo. "False Beauty in Advertising and the Pressure to Look 'Good'." Opinion. CNN.com. 

Cable News Network, 10 Aug. 2011. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. 


Government Documents

Information You Need to Gather:

  1. If you do not know the writer of the document, use the government agency as author: Name of Government. Name of Agency. If known,  the author may begin the citation or go after publication.
  2. Title of Publication. (in italics & followed by a period)
  3. If known, author can follow the title after ByEd., or Comp.
  4. City of Publication: (if work has print publication data, followed by a colon)
  5. Publisher, (if work has print publication data, followed by a comma)
  6. Year of publication. (followed by a period)
  7. Title of Database of Website. (italicized and followed by a period)
  8. Medium. (Print or Web, followed by a period)
  9. If medium is Web, include date of access (day Month year).

Click here for citation examples, including statistical tables, codes, bills, court decisions, agency report, and press releases.

Government Documents

United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Let's Eat for the Health of It. Washington: GPO, 2012. Web. 21 Nov. 2012.

---. Dept. of Justice. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Law Enforcement and

Juvenile Crime. By Howard N. Snyder. 2001. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Web. 15 May 2012. 

---. Dept. of State. U.S. Climate Action Report - 2010: Fifth National Communication of the United

States of America under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Washington: GPO, 2010. U.S. Department of State. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. 

---. National Center for Education Statistics. "Table 396: Distribution of Earnings and Median Earnings

of Persons 25 Years Old and Over, by Highest Level of Educational Attainment and Sex: 2010." Digest of Education Statistics. Sept. 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2012. 


Other Sources

"Brazil." 2009. CountryWatchWeb. 5 Nov. 2011.

"Bujumbura Police Sweep Nets about 50 Suspected Bandits." Panafrican News Agency. Nov. 2004. 

CountryWatch. Web. 5 Nov. 2011.

California. Dept. of Education. "Ethnic Enrollment Statistics - Orange County." RAND CaliforniaWeb. 5 Nov. 

2011.

Grapes of Wrath. Dir. John Ford. Perf. Henry Fonda, Jane Darwell, and John Carradine. 1940. Twentieth Century

Fox, 2004. DVD.

"India: Country Overview." 17 July 2008. CountryWatchWeb. 5 Nov. 2011.

James, John S. "Combination Drug Treatment May End the AIDS Crisis." Opposing Viewpoints: AIDS. Ed. Tamara

L. Roleff and Charles P. Cozic. Gale Opposing Viewpoints in ContextWeb. 5 Nov. 2011.

Masci, David. "Future of Marriage." CQ Researcher 7 July 2004: 397-420. CQ Researcher OnlineWeb. 5 Nov.

2011.

Research & Analysis Unit at the Chancellor's Office. "Community College Enrollment Statistics." RAND California

Web. 5 Nov. 2011.

"Week in Politics: Gun Control, Immigration, Obama, Budget." TranscriptAll Things Considered. NPR. 12 Apr.

2013. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.


Citation Makers


Additional Resources


MLA Citation Guide.pdf

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APA References

APA - American Psychological Association

Used by many classes in the social and natural sciences and in business, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association6th ed. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2010, is available in the library for checkout: Call#  BF 76.7 P83 2010

Digital Object Identifier  | Citation Examples
Additional Resources

Digital Object Identifier

APA guidelines require the addition of the digital object identifier (DOI) to the citation.  A DOI is a unique string of numbers assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to online journals to identify their content and provide a consistent link to their locations on the Internet (see sections 6.31-6.32 and 7.01 of the APA Publications Manual).  The publisher assigns a DOI when an article is published and made available electronically.  The DOI number is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article and on the databases often will be found on the citation or first page of the article record. When the DOI is present, the URL or website address is not included, but when the DOI is not present, then the URL or website is required.

When the DOI is present:

General format:

Author A. A. (date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(number), page numbers. doi: xx.xxxxxx

Example:

Garcia, D., & Siddiqui, A. (2009). Adolescents’ psychological well-being and memory for life events: Influences on life

satisfaction with respect to temperamental dispositions. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(4), 407-

419. doi: 10.1007/s10902-008-9096-3

When DOI is not present:

General format

Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of Article. Title of Journal, volume(number), page numbers. Retrieved from

URL or website address

Example:

Broman, C. L. (2008). Family structure and mediators of adolescent drug use. Journal of Family Issues, 29(12),

1625-1649. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db+aph&AN=

34999958&site-ehost-live 

Citation Examples

Double-space citations. Use the Times New Roman font.

  • Sources from Fullerton College Databases
  • Print Sources
  • Online Sources

Sources from Fullerton College Databases

Annals of American History Online

Ross, M. (1937). Why Social Security? Social Security Board Publication No. 15. Retrieved from

http://america.eb.com/america/article?articleId=386873&query=why+social+security

Washington, G. (1789). First inaugural address. Retrieved from http://america.eb.com/america/article?

articleId=385337&query=first+inaugural+address+washington  

CQ Researcher

Masci, D. (2004, May 7). Future of marriage. CQ Researcher, 14, 197-420. Retrieved from

http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2004050700&type=hitlist&num=1

 
EBSCOhost Databases

If the article has no author, start the citation with the title.  For popular magazines and newspapers you need the full date; for scholarly articles only the year is needed.  For popular magazines (e.g., TimeNewsweekNation) you do not need the volume number; for scholarly journals you will need the volume number and issue number (if provided). The DOI (if available) or URL (i.e., the Permalink) is on the first or citation page (click on the article title). 

Global warming (2006, April 3). Time, 28-33. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db

=aph&AN=20278627&site=ehost-live

Hawkins, D. (2000, January 17). Cheap video cameras are monitoring our every move. U.S. News & World Report,

52. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=2660501&site=

ehost-live

Thompson, J. A., & Halberstadt, A. G. (2008). Children’s accounts of sibling jealousy and their implicit theories about

relationships. Social Development, 17(3), 488-511. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00435.x    

Gale Virtual Reference Library

Citation information on this database will be at the start of each reference source (e.g., dictionary, encyclopedia, handbook, etc.) entry.  If there is no author for the entry, start with the title.  The URL or website address will be under the How to Cite feature.

Garman, B. (2000). Dylan, Bob.  In S. Pendergast & T. Pendergast (Eds.), St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture

(Vol. 1, pp. 780-783). Detroit: Gale. Retrieved from http://find.galegroup.com/gvrl/Informark.do?&contentSet=

EBKS&type=retrieval&tabID=T00l&prodId=GVRL&docId=CX34090018&s=full44847&version=1.0    

Santora, P. B., & Henningfield, J. E. (2005). Nicotine. In J. Goodman (Ed.), Tobacco in History and Culture: An

Encyclopedia (pp. 387-392). Detroit: Gale. Retrieved from http://find.galegroup.com/gvrl/infomark.do?&

contentSet=EBKS&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=GVRL&docId=CX3436700097&source=GVRL&docId

Opposing Viewpoints in Context

This database includes a variety of sources: viewpoint essays, articles, book chapters, etc.; each is cited differently.  The URL or website will be found under the How to cite feature.

Brave, R, (2001, December 10). Governing the genome: Which genetic modifications should be encouraged and which

outlawed? Nation, 18. Retrieved from http://find.galegroup.com/ovrc/ infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-

Document&type=retrieve&tabID=T003&prodID=OVRC&docId

Kaliher, W. B. (2003). Partner notification of HIV status should be mandatory. In T. L. Roleff (Ed.), Opposing Viewpoints:

AIDS. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. Retrieved from

http://find.galegroup.com/ovrc/infomark.do?&contentSet=GSRC&type=retrieve&tabID= T010&prodId=

OVRC&docId=EJ3010106246&source=gale&userGroupName=full44847&version=1.0

Zbogar, H. (2002). Q & A: Integrating ethics into the mental health and addiction fields. Journal of Addiction and Mental

Health, 6(1), 16-17. Retrieved from

http://find.galegroup.com/ovrc/infomark.do?&contentSet=IACdocuments&type=retrieve

&tabID=T004&prodId=OVRC&docId=A93611163&source=gale&userGroupName=full44847&version=1.0

JSTOR

Bauman, A. (2000). [Review of the book Jane Austen and the fiction of her time, by M. Waldron]. Tulsa Studies in

Women’s Literature,19, 342­345. Retrieved from http://www.utulsa.edu/tswl

Golden, R. M. (1997). American perspectives on the European witch hunts. History Teacher, 30, 409­426.

doi:10.2307/494137

LexisNexis Academic

This database includes a variety of sources: journals, magazines, and newspapers (1st example), company dossiers (2nd example), and legal sources (http://j.mp/pyGDxe).

Wildstrom, S.H. (1999, April 5). A big boost for net privacy. Business Week, p. 23. Retrieved from  LexisNexis Academic

database

LexisNexis. Harley Davidson, Inc. (2010). Retrieved 2010, January 10 from LexisNexis Academic database

RAND California

Click on Statistics Summary to find the author or agency responsible for the data; the date is the last date of the compiled statistical data.

California Dept. of Education (2007). Ethnic enrollment statistics—Orange County. Retrieved from http://ca.rand.org/cgi-

bin/ethnic/ethnic_sch.cgi

Research & Analysis Unit at the Chancellor's Office (2007). Community college enrollment statistics. Retrieved from

http://ca.rand.org/cgi-bin/annual.cgi

Print Sources

Books, Reference Books, and Book Chapters (7.02, pp. 202-205)
Books

Burkhardt, J. M. (2003). Teaching information literacy: 35 practical, standards-based exercises for college students.

Chicago, IL: American Library Association.

Kender, S. E. (Ed.). (1996). Crime in America. New York, NY: Wilson.

Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Macmillan.

Reference Books (Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Atlases, etc.) (7.02.27, p. 204)

APA concise dictionary of psychology. (2009). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Rogelbert, S. G. (Ed.). (2007). Encyclopedia of industrial and organizational psychology (Vols. 1-2). Thousand Oaks, CA:

Sage Publications.

Waclawski, J. (2007). Focus groups. In S. G. Rogelbert (Ed.), Encyclopedia of industrial and organizational psychology

(Vol. 1, pp. 255-256). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Book Chapters

Binks, G. (2001). Eating disorders are not necessarily harmful. In J. A. Hurley (Ed.), Eating disorders: Opposing viewpoints

(pp. 31-36). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven. (Reprinted from The joys of anorexia, by G. Binks, 2000, January

27, Salon).

Conrad, J. (1959). The secret sharer. In R. G. Davis (Ed.), Ten modern masters: An anthology of short stories (2nd ed., pp.

98-136). New York, NY: Harcourt. 

Victor, J. S.  (2002). The extent of Satanic crime is exaggerated. In T. L. Roleff (Ed.), At issue: Satanism (pp. 32-48). San

Diego, CA: Greenhaven. (Excerpted from Satanic panic: The creation of a contemporary legend, by J. S.

Victor, 1993).

Electronic or Online Books
Place of publication and publisher information are not needed for online books.

Tonry, M. H. (2004). Thinking about crime: Sense and sensibility in American penal culture.  Retrieved from

http://www.netlibrary.com/Reader/

Electronic or Online Version of Republished Book (7.02.21, p. 203)

London, J. (2004). Call of the wild. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books (Original work published 1903)

Newspaper, Popular Magazine, and Journal Articles (7.01.3, 7.01.7, 7.01.10, p. 198-203)  
If there is no author, start with the title. Popular magazines do not require a volume/issue number.

Blue, L. (2009, August 3). Preventing preemies. Newsweek, 37-40.

Mershon, D. H. (1998, November/December). Star Trek in the brain: Alien minds, human minds. American Scientist, 86(6),

585.

Nude model riles MoMA (2009, August 29). Los Angeles Times, p. D2.

Rodriguez, A. (2009, August 10). Pakistani Taliban preys on youth. Los Angeles Times, pp. A1, A15.

Online Sources

Article from an Online Scholarly Journal

O’Hara, L. (1998, June). Body image and eating behaviours: Preventing disease or promoting health? Eating Disorders

Online, 1(2). Retrieved from http://www.eda.org.au/internetwork/journal/current/index.html

Article from an Online Popular Magazine (e.g., TimeNewsweekVanity Fair)

Clark, K. (2009, August 27). How a new tax credit can help you pay for college. U.S. News & World Report.  Retrieved from

http://www.usnews.com/blogs/college-cash-101/2009/08/27/how-a-new-tax-credit-can-help-you-pay-for-

college.html

Article from an Online Newspaper (7.01.11,  p. 200)

Gertenzang, J. (2006, May 9). Bush makes final push for Medicare drug program. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from

http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-050906bush_lat,o,5382305.story?coll=la-home-

headlines

Article from a Database with DOI Present (6.31, 7.01,  pp. 188-192, 198-199)

Kortteinen, H., Narhi, V., & Ahonen, T. (2005).  Does IQ matter in adolescents’ reading disability? Learning & Individual

Differences, 19(2), 257-261. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2009.01.003

Article from a Database without DOI (7.01.03,  p. 199)

Siu, A. M. H., & Shek, D. T. L. (2005). The Chinese version of the social problem-solving inventory: Some initial results on

reliability and validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61 (3), 347-360. Retrieved from

http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pbh&AN=15962773&site=ehost-li

Entry in an Online Encyclopedia (7.01.29, p. 205)
If the entry has no author, then start with the title.

Photosynthesis. (2009). In Encyclopedia Britannica online. Retrieved from

http://www.brittanica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis

Pope, H. (1910). St. Mary Magdalen. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

http://www.newadvent.org/cathern/09761a.htm

Websites
If there is no date on the website use n.d.in parentheses.

Amnesty International. (2005, May 10). Growing network of arms brokers and transporters fuelling kills, rage, and torture.

Retrieved from http://news.amnestry.org/index/ENGPOL300132006

Library of Congress. (2001, March 23).  Born in slavery: Slave narratives from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936-1938.

Retrieved from http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/

Liu, V. (n.d.). Emma: A literary analysis on character techniques.  The Jane Austen homepage.  Retrieved from

http://www.geocities.com/Athens/8563/essays/essay1.html?20093

Rusche, H. (2004). Lost poets of the great war. Retrieved from http://www.english.emory.edu/LostPoets/

U. S. Bureau of the Census. (2009, March 31). Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2007.

Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/www/hlthins/hlthin07.html

Additional Resources

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